What Women Should Know About Cervical Cancer & HPV

By Hendra Kusuma

Cervical cancer is a malignant cancer tissue that attack cervix (organ connecting the uterus and vagina). There are some types of this cancer. The most common types, the SCC (squalors cell carcinoma), a major cause of cervical cancer with the percentage of 80-85 percent. HPV infection is a "trigger" major in the development of this cancer.

Other types of this cancer, like adenokarsinoma, small cell carcinoma, adenosquamos, adenosarcoma, melanoma, and lymphoma, a type of cervical cancer is rarer and generally not associated with HPV. Various types of cervical cancer this last can not be prevented, such as SCC.

Signs and Symptoms

Early stage cervical cancer are asymptomatic.

Advanced cervical cancer showed symptoms of vaginal bleeding, back pain, urinary symptoms such as dyisuria (painful or difficult urination) and cloudy urine, and digestive disorders such as chronic constipation and tenemus (still feel a lump, although it has a bowel movement).

In addition, pain-is when sexual intercourse and vaginal discharge is also a symptom of advanced cervical cancer. Less common symptoms include loss of appetite, weight loss, fatigue, leg pain, leg swelling, and leaking urine or feces from the vagina.

Carcinoma in Situ (CIS or CIN)

Pap smear can identify carcinoma in situ (CIN) in cervical, and treatment can prevent cancer development. CIN is a cluster of pre-malignant cells is still the "in situ" or "in place" and did not move from its initial position and not spread to other parts of the body. Thankfully, in Singapore and other developed countries, the use of cervical scanning program has reduced the number of invasive cervical cancer sufferers.

Women are encouraged to perform a Pap smear once a year since their first sexual intercourse and continued until they were aged about 70 years. If two to three years Pap smear results are normal results, women may decide to reduce the frequency to two to three years. However, high-risk women (see below) are encouraged to continue it every year.

Not all women with HPV infection to patients with CIN, and not all women with CIN to cervical cancer sufferers. Many HPV infections disappear quickly countered by the immune system, just like any other infection.

However, certain types of HPV in the cervix tend to settle for a few years, genetic change cells making the cervix, and causes dysplasia (abnormal cell growth). If not treated immediately, severe dysplasia can and usually will develop into invasive cervical cancer.

CIN usually do not show any symptoms. This is a good time to scan the treatment of cancer because it was nearly always result in complete recovery.

People at Risk

All women who engaged in risky sexual be cervical cancer sufferers. However, women who have many male friends to have sex (or her male friend had been having a lot of female friends for sex) higher risk. Women who began having sexual intercourse before age 16 without a safety in the highest risk.

Has developed an effective vaccine against HPV types cause 70-85% of all cervical cancers.

HPV vaccine is for girls and women aged 9-26 years because the vaccine only works if given before infection occurs. However, this vaccine can be given to women remains a rather late start of sexual activity. Prices are expensive vaccines sometimes cause reluctance. However, because this vaccine only covers for certain high-risk HPV types, women have Pap smears regularly, even after vaccination.


Although the Pap smear test is an effective scanning of this cancer, confirming the diagnosis of cervical cancer or pre-cervical cancer requires a biopsy. This is often done through colposcopy, a visual examination of the cervix with a magnifying tool, assisted acid solution to highlight abnormal cells on the surface of the cervix. This is an outpatient procedure for 15 minutes and not causes pain.

Further diagnostic procedures include LEEP (Loop Electrical Excision Procedure), cone biopsy (cone biopsies), and punch biopsies.

Stadium and Treatment

Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) cervical cancer classifications based on scanning into CIN I to CIN III, with CIN III is the direct precursor to cervical cancer. On top of CIN III, meaning has been transformed into cancer cells, and will be classified from stage 0 (cancer confined to the area of skin) to 4B (a relative had spread far).

An early-stage patients can be treated with conservative surgery for women who want to maintain fertility, whereas other patients are usually advised to remove the entire uterus and cervix (trachelectomy). Generally recommended to wait at least one year prior to seeking pregnancy after surgery. Because of the possibility of cancer spread to lymph nodes (lymph node) in a late-stage cancer, the surgeon may also need to lift from the lymph nodes around the uterus for pathologic evaluation.

This cancer is very rare residual cancer has relapsed again if cleaned with the trachelectomy. However, it is recommended for patients to make prevention and treatment continued, including scanning Pap (Pap smear).

Early stage tumors can be treated with radical hysterectomy (removal of uterus) with removal of lymph nodes. Radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy can be given after surgery to reduce the risk of relapse. Early stage tumors can be treated with large radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Furthermore, hysterectomy can be performed for local cancer control them better.

Advanced tumors (stage 2B to 4B) should be treated with combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy.


With treatment, survival rates of cervical cancer patients after 5 years was 92% for the earliest stages, 80-90% for stage 1 cancer and 50-65% for stage 2. Only 25-35 percent for women with stage 3, and less than 15 percent of fourth stage cervical cancer patients are alive after five years. Therefore, the scanning / screening and early detection of cervical cancer is very important.

Visit the doctor immediately if you experience the following symptoms:[source]

* Vaginal bleeding
* Back pain
* Pain when urinating or difficult urination and cloudy urine
* Constipation cronies and felt a lump, although defecation
* Ill-being when having sexual intercourse and vaginal discharge
* Swollen feet
* Leaking urine or feces from the vagina


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